Library of Validated Protocols for Europain


TNT Model:

Denise Richardson, ; Hannah Gunton, ; Heather West, ; Gurrell, Rachel; Machin, Ian; Nicholson, Janet; Corradini, Laura; Gillian Burgess, (2015): Tibial Nerve Transection (TNT) Model of Neuropathic Pain in the Rat. figshare.

Huang W, Calvo M, Katu K, Olausen HR, Bathgate G, okuse k, Bennett DL, Rice AS. A clinically relevant rodent model of the HIV antiretroviral drug stavudine induced painful peripheral neuropathy. Pain. 2013 Apr;154(4):560-75.  doi: 10.1016/j. pain.2012.12.023.


UVB Model:

Sisignano M, Angioni C, Ferreiros N, Schuh CD, Suo J, Schreiber Y, Dawes JM, Antunes-Martins A, Bennett DL, McMahon SB, Geisslinger G, Scholich K. Synthesis of lipid mediators during UVB-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in rats and mice. PLos One. 2013 Dec 9;8(12):e81228. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081228.

Dawes JM, Calvo M, Perkins JR, Paterson KJ, Kiesewetter H, Hobbs C, Kaan TK, Orengo C, Bennett DL, McMahon SB. CXCL5 mediates UVB irradiation-induced pain. Sci Transl Med. 2011 Jul 6;3(90):90ra60. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3002193.


Burrowing model:

Andrews, N., Legg, E., Lisak, D., Issop, Y., Richardson, D., Harper, S., Pheby, T., Huang, W., Burgess, G., Machin, I., Rice, A.S. (2012). Spontaneous burrowing behaviour in the rat is reduced by peripheral nerve injury or inflammation associated pain. European Journal of Pain 16, 485–495. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain. 2011.07.012.

Rutten, K., Schiene, K., Robens, A., Leipelt, A., Pasqualon, T., Read, S.J., Christoph, T. Burrowing as a non-reflex behavioral readout for analgesic action in a rat model of sub-chronic knee joint inflammation. 2013. European Journal of Pain, 18, 204-212. doi: 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00358.x.

Rutten, K., Robens, A., Read, S.J., Christoph, T. Pharmacological validation of a refined burrowing paradigm for prediction of analgesic efficacy in a rat model of sub-chronic knee-joint inflammation. 2013. European Journal of Pain, 18, 213-222. doi: 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2013.00359.x.

Wodarski, R., Delaney, A., Ultenius, C., Morland, R., Andrews, N., Baastrup, C., Bryden, L., Caspani, O., Christoph, T., Gardiner, N.J., Huang, W., Kennedy, J.D., Koyama, S., Li, D., Ligocki, m., Lindsten, A., Machin, I., Pekcec, A., Robens, A., Maria Rotariu, S., Schäfer-Voß, S., Segerdahl, M., Stenfors, C., Svensson, C., Treede, R-D, Uto, K., Yamamoto, K., Rutten K, Rice, A.S.C. Burrowing as ethologically relevant pain outcome measure in the rat: A prospective randomised, multicentre validation study. Submitted 2015.


Spinal cord contusion model (SCC) 

Baastrup, Cathrine; Maersk-Moller, Camilla; Jensen, Troels; Nanna Finnerup, ; Machin, Ian (2015): Spinal cord contusion: A traumatic rat model of spinal cord injury and at-level hypersensitivity. figshare.

Baastrup C, Jensen TS, Finnerup NB. Pregabalin attenuates place escape/avoidance behavior in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Brain Res. 2011; Jan 25;1370:129-35 doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.11.008.


Model of d4T-induced sensory neuropathy

Huang W, Calvo M, Karu K, Olausen HR, Bathgate G, Okuse K, Bennett DL, Rice AS. A clinically relevant rodent model of the HIV antiretroviral drug stavudine induced painful peripheral neuropathy. 2013. Pain, 154, 560-575. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2012.12.023.

Denk F, W Huang, B Sidders, A Bithell, M Crow, J Grist, S Sharma, A Rice, NJ Buckley, SB McMahon. HDAC inhibitors ameliorate hypersensitivity in models of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2013 154(9): 1668–1679. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.05.021


Rodent model of HIV, anti-retroviral-associated neuropathy

Huang, Wenlong; Rice, Andrew; Machin, Ian (2015): Refined rat models of HIV antiretroviral drugs stavudine and indinavir induced peripheral neuropathy. figshare.

Wallace VCJ, Segerdahl AR, Blackbeard J, Pheby T, Rice ASC. Anxiety-like behaviour is attenuated by gabapentin, morphine and diazepam in a rodent model of HIV anti-retroviral-associated neuropathic pain. Neuroscience Letters 448 (2008) 153–156. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.10.005.


Model of sleep disruption-induced hypersensitivity

Wodarski R, Schuh-Hofer S, Yurek DA, Wafford KA, Gilmour G, Treede RD, Kennedy JD. Development and pharmacological characterization of a model of sleep disruption– induced hypersensitivity in the rat. European Journal of Pain 2015 Apr;19(4):554-66. doi: 10.1002/ejp.580

 Topical menthol model

Mahn F, Hüllemann P, Wasner G, Baron R, Binder A. Topical high-concentration menthol: reproducibility of a human surrogate pain model. European Journal of Pain. 2014 Oct;18(9):1248-58. doi: 10.1002/j.1532-2149.2014.484.x. Epub 2014 Apr 29. PubMed PMID: 24777959.

Binder A, Stengel M, Klebe O, Wasner G, Baron R. Topical high-concentration (40%) menthol-somatosensory profile of a human surrogate pain model. J Pain. 2011 Jul;12(7):764-73.
doi: 10.1016/j.jpain.2010.12.013. Epub 2011 Apr 2. PubMed PMID: 21459681.


Clinical models

Demant DT, Lund K, Vollert J, Maier C, Segerdahl M, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS, Sindrup SH. The effect of oxcarbazepine in peripheral neuropathic pain depends on pain phenotype: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phenotype-stratified study. Pain. 2014 Nov;155(11):2263-73. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2014.08.014. Epub 2014 Aug 17. PubMed PMID: 25139589.

Andersen KG, Christensen KB, Kehlet H, Bidstrup PE. The effect of pain on physical functioning after breast cancer treatment. Development and validation of an assessment tool. Clin J Pain 2015a; 31(9): 794-802. doi: 00002508-201509000-00006.

Ringsted TK, Wildgaard K, Kreiner S, Kehlet H. Pain-related impairment of daily activities after thoracic surgery – a questionnaire validation. Clin J Pain 2013;29:791-9. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e318278d4e2.

Geber C, Scherens A, Pfau D, Nestler  N, Zenz M, Tölle T, Baron R, Treede RD, Maier C. [Procedure for certification of QST laboratories]. Schmerz. 2009 Feb;23(1):65-9. doi: 10.1007/s00482-008-0771-4. German. PubMed PMID: 19184121. doi: 10.1007/s00482-008-0771-4.

Gierthmühlen J, Enax-Krumova EK, Attal N, Bouhassira D, Cruccu G, Finnerup NB, Haanpää M, Hansson P, Jensen TS, Freynhagen R, Kennedy JD, Mainka T, Rice AS, Segerdahl M, Sindrup SH, Serra J, Tölle T, Treede RD, Baron R, Maier C. Who is healthy? Aspects to consider when including healthy volunteers in QST—based studies-a consensus statement by the EUROPAIN and NEUROPAIN consortia. Pain. 2015 Nov;156(11):2203-11. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000227. PubMed PMID: 26075963.

Pfau DB, Elena K Krumova, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Ralf Baron, Thomas Toelle, Frank Birklein, Wolfgang Eich, Christian Geber, Andreas Gerhardt, Thomas Weiss, Walter Magerl, Christoph Maier. Quantitative sensory testing in the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS): Reference data for the trunk and application in patients with chronic postherpetic neuralgia. Pain 155(2014) 1002-1015. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2014.02.004.